Black Lipped Cobra (Prepared By Sopanha Vory 11C)
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Black-Lipped Cobra

Introduction to The World Most Endangerous Species
The cobra snake is the largest venomous snake in the world and probably also the deadliest in terms of known human deaths caused by a snake.Snakes in this family are found around the world including the Indian Ocean and the Pacific. The cobra snake can reach a length of almost 6 meter.Amongst them, King Cobra is the largest venomous snake.A king Cobra can even kill an elephant.
The king cobra has a special preference for other snakes but it will also feed on small lizards and even mammals. Its found in Asia where it prefers to live in tropical forests and grassland. It is 10-12 feet long and will attack if provoked even though it's considered shy.
You know who is the Cobra enemies, : Obviously the Mongroose

Introduction
African mambas like Black-Lipped Cobras are very aggressive and dangerous.The cobra has a deadly bite. If you didn't know, the cobra's venom can sting your nervous system and you could stop breathing! When the cobra bites its prey, venom from the glands attached to its fangs kills its victim. To make the neurotoxins (venom) come through the glands, a small muscle pushes the venom through the hallow fangs and the neurotoxins will paralyze its victim.
When the Cobra eats, It doesn't chew its food. The Cobra swallows his food in whole!
Black-Lipped Cobras are cold-blooded, they are the same temperature as the enviroment.They continue to grow all their lives,getting bigger and bigger each year.
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Black Cobra

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Cobra in attacking position

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Cobra diagram

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Attacking



Sciencetific Classification + Explaination
Kingdom:
Animalia
Cobras are members of the animal kingdom.
Phylum
Chordata
Animals in the chordata phylum have spinal cords.
Class:
Reptilia
Reptiles lay eggs and have horny or scaly skin.
Order:
Squamata
Squamata are scale-covered reptiles such as lizards and snakes.
Family:
Elapidae
The elapid family: poisonous snakes with round pupils, fast-acting neurotoxic venom and a pair of short, fixed fangs in the front of theupper jaw.
Genus:
Naja
Genus: a group of species that are related but cannot interbreed.
Species:
melanoleuca
Species: a group of related individuals that can mate and produce offspring.
Location:
Rain Forest
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Rain forest



Classification

Distribution
Tropical Rainforest of Africa and Asia.
Habitat
Heavily forested regions of western Africa. Sierra Leone and surrounding regions.
Food

Small mammals & birds, snakes+ variety of prey items likes,amphibian,geckos,agamid lizards,birds,rodents and eggs of birds and reptiles.
Size
6-8 feet, specimens have been recorded over 9 feet in length.
Maturity
5 - 6 years
Breeding
eggs are laid under logs, in abandoned rodent burrows, termite nests or other suitable nooks and crannies.
Life Span
29 years, for female abit longer
Hunting
Use their forked tongue to smell and detect their potential food and thab rely on it excellent Eyesight(able to detect moving prey almost 330 feet (100 meters) away) to find.
Status
Recent data suggests this species is declining rapidly near and around expanding human habitations as well as agricultural areas. This snake species may never have existed in large numbers to due it's position in the environment as an apex predator.
Content
1.Sexual Dimorphism- how are the males and females different?Are there any other genders (examples bees have drones(males), Queens(females) and worker bees(unfertilized females))
2.Diagrams of the male and female sexual organs
3.Information abour Courtship, Mating, Fertilization, and What determines whether the animal is male of female of other?
4.Gestation, Parental Care and Weaning
5.Lifecycle of the organism

Sexual Dimorphism
We can determine the male from female cobra by compare the morphological differences ,composition of their body, adult body sizes and their body components.
- For example, we might expect the reproductive success of females to be enhanced by enlargement of organ systems involved in the processing and storage of energy (e.g. alimentary tract, liver, fat stores)
- whereas males would benefit from the enlargement of systems important for mate-searching, male versus male combat and sperm competition (e.g. larger mass of skeletal muscles, tail, and kidneys).


Strong sex differences were apparently in relative sizes (masses) of all the non-gonadal body components that we weighed. For example, males consistently had more musculature (relative to body length) than did conspecific females.Dimorphism in relative muscle mass is likely to be one of the most fundamental and widespread morphological differences between males and females in the Animal Kingdom.

Diagram of male and female sexual organs


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Male Cobra

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Female cobra Component


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Spitting Cobra

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Skeleton of Cobra






Courtship
To impress the female cobra, the male cobra will have combat with an opponent and if either cobra pushes it's enemies head to the ground, that cobra will wins the heart of female cobra.
Or Two males will literally "dance" with each other to determine who wins the right to mate with the female cobra. Death or serious injury rarely occurs from such ritual behavior. Once a male has established his dominance the loser will generally move on with out any further incident.
Females signal their readiness for mating by producing pheromones, chemicals with a smell that attracts adult males of the same species. Females leave behind pheromones on the ground as they move about, and males follow the pheromone trail to its source.

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cobra maitng!







Mating
Potential mates find each other by sending “scent messages.” Both males and females give off a musk in the mating season. When a male picks up the scent of a nearby female he pursues her and rubs her with his head. If she’s not interested, he persists by using his head to butt and push her around. Once she’s aroused, the male inserts the nearest of his pair of hemipenes, genitals stored inside the tail, just behind his vent. The pair can stay joined like this for hours.
Diagram of male and female sexual organs
Cobra in mating ritual
Cobra in mating ritual






Fertilization
They meet each other in spring, or when the temperature get warmer. Female can store sperm for years. The ovule and the spermatozoid meeting - takes place high up in the oviduct.The fertilised egg then moves down into the oviduct where the uterine glands secrete substances to surround it. The nature of these substances depends on whether the egg is to be laid or gestated within the body. The length of embryonic development depends on species, and within the species on temperature.

It’s a two-story affair: The eggs are laid in a bottom chamber and the queen lies coiled in the upper layer.
About two months after mating, the queen lays a clutch of 20-40 eggs. She will guard these on the nest for about two more months.
Babby Cobra
When they hatch, the brightly-marked hatchlings are good to go. About 14 inches (35 centimeters) long and as thick as your little finger, they emerge self-sufficient. Their venom is just as potent as an adult king cobra’s.
She makes a nest. The female lays 20-50 eggs in the nest.The female deposit their eggs in a carefully chosen spot,temperature and humidity must be just right.


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Cobra babe is harching




How Male differ from female
Male cobra has more muscle, heavier in combating organs and abit longer than the female.

Further information
Cobra Facts

-The venom of the King Cobra is stronf enough to kill an elephant!
-The largest cenomous snake is the KIng Cobta,having reached lengths over 18 feets.
-The Cobra's fangs are half an inch long!
-Cobra venom has beed used for years in medical research because it has an enzyme, lecithinase , that dissolves cell walls and membranes surrounding ciruses
-The King Cobra can administer 350-4-- milligrams of venom in a single bite, enough to kill 10-13 adult humans or a large elephant.
-The King Cobra detects prey by flicking its tongue out to collect scents from the air.
Hunting
Fangs are angled back into its mouth. The fangs help the Cobra swallow its food.This allows a snake like the cobra to swallow a creature that is thicker than its own head!
The black lipped cobra is dangerous to all of its prey. When the cobra hunts, it uses its sense of smell with its long tongue. The tongue is used like our nose. When it attacks, it bites its prey and injects a large dose of venom!Now that the prey is poisoned, the cobra swallows it while it in whole while the victim is still alive! Snakes have to eat this way because they have no hands, fingers, or sharp nails to help them to their prey to pieces. To make this easier, the cobra uses its fangs which
Fangs!: The Cobras fangs are almost half an inch (8-10 millimeters) long. The Cobras fangs are fixed to it's upper jaw, the fangs have to be the size they are because if the kings fangs were longer he might bite the floor of his mouth and commite royal suicide.

The cobra is known for it's intimidating behavior and deadly bite. When angry the hoods of the cobra flares. The hoods are created by the elongate ribs that extend the loose skin of the neck behind the cobras head.


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Openig hood Skeleton

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Cobra swallows its own specie





Gestation, Parental care and Weaning
The male stays close by, ready to attack anyone who wants to eat the eggs. After 3 months, the baby snakes will hatch. During the two weeks, the female cobra has to take care the snakes. When they are old enough, they begin to live on their own.








Lifecycle of Black Lipped Cobra
Shedding
Black Lipped cobras generally shed four to six times a year in a two week shedding cycle, but in their first year they shed every month.
Despite all this shedding, the number of scales and their arrangement remains the same throughout the snake’s life.
When the king starts shedding, it drinks water to help separate itchy old skin from the new one underneath. It then rubs against rough edges to start the peeling process. Besides new skin, the king uncovers new fangs, teeth, and tongue tips. The change also means new eye coverings (like new contact lenses) and about ten days of half blindness.

Scales are a kind of thickened skin containing keratin, the same material as your fingernail.



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cobra sheds his scales

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The unwanted scale

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Cobra scales